Min-Hua Cui, Dan Cui, Bin Liang, Thangavel Sangeetha, Ai-Jie Wang and Hao-Yi Cheng
RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 49995-50001
An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was developed to investigate the effect of azo dye loading rate on the decolorization performance and microbial community. The results indicated that the decolorization efficiency decreased from 95.84 _ 2.60 to 62.98 _ 8.66% with the azo dye loading rate increasing from 100 to 800 g m_3 d_1. The inhibition of the high azo dye loading rate on the microbial activity was reversible. The decolorization efficiency rose with the azo dye loading rate decreasing and recovered to 92.15 _ 3.86% at an azo dye loading rate of 600 g m_3 d_1. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing based on the high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed that the microbial diversity of the sludge in UASB was reduced compared to the inoculum. Proteobacteria (40.51%) and Firmicutes (33.17%) were enriched. Enterobacter and Enterococcus with relative abundances of 26.99% and 20.38% were the most enriched genera, which were also functional for azo dye reduction.
Min-Hua Cui, Dan Cui, Hyung-Sool Lee, Bin Liang, Ai-Jie Wang & Hao-Yi Cheng
Sci Rep 2016, 6, 25223
In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41?±?6.20% at influent loading rate of 800?g-AYR/ m3·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23?±?1.86% for R1 versus 22.24?±?2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment.
Hong Chen, Wen Wang, Lina Xue, Chang Chen, Guangqing Liu, and Ruihong Zhang
Energy Fuels, 2016, 30 (7), pp 5749–5757
The effects of ammonia on semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste were studied. Inhibition effects were observed when the total ammonium concentration in the AD reactor exceeded 2g/L. Ammonia strongly inhibited methanogenesis but minimally affected hydrolysis and acidification. Inhibition of AD by ammonia enhanced the accumulation of acetate and propionate and consequently decreased the pH, which worsened the inhibition effects. With increasing ammonium concentration, methane production from acetate shifted from acetoclastic methanogenesis (mostly by Methanosaeta) to syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (mostly by Methanosarcina). The metabolism of hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum were inhibited when the ammonium concentration further increased to about 6 g/L. Microorganisms irrelevant in the methane fermentation process were enriched with the increase of ammonium concentration.
Diyan Li, Binlong Chen, Long Zhang, Uma Gaur, Tianyuan Ma, Hang Jie, Guijun Zhao, Nan Wu, Zhongxian Xu, Huailiang Xu, Yongfang Yao, Ting Lian, Xiaolan Fan, Deying Yang, Mingyao Yang, Qing Zhu & Jessica Satkoski Trask
Sci Rep 2016, 6, 18975
Male musk deer secrete musk from the musk gland located between their naval and genitals. Unmated male forest musk deer generate a greater amount of musk than mated males, potentially allowing them to attract a greater number of females. In this study, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to explore musk chemical composition of the musk pods of captive mated and unmated sexually mature Chinese forest musk deer and used next-generation sequencing to intensively survey the bacterial communities within them. Analysis of the chemical composition of the musk showed that unmated males have more muscone and cholesterol. Features of the musk16S rRNA gene showed that mated Chinese forest musk deer have both a greater Shannon diversity (p < 0.01) and a greater number of estimated operational taxonomic units than unmated ones; many bacterial genera were overrepresented in unmated Chinese forest musk deer males. Members of these genera might be involved in musk odor fermentation. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and isoflavonoid biosynthesis were enriched in the musk of unmated Chinese forest musk deer males.
Lili Wei, Leixi Cao, Yanyan Miao, Shuju Wu, Shumei Xu, Ruisheng Wang, Jun Du, Aihua Liang, Yuejun Fu
Biotechnology Letters August 2017, Volume 39, Issue 8, pp 1129–1139
Objectives To analyze the transcriptome of Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells infected with AcMNPV or AcMNPV-BmK IT. Results A comprehensive transcriptome profile for Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV or AcMNPV-BmK IT is shown. 43127572, 46529744 and 47235310 RNA-Seq profiles permitted the quantification of expression levels for control (C), AcMNPV-BmK IT treatment (ABT) and AcMNPV treatment (AT) groups. There were 997 up-regulated or down-regulated candidate genes with significant different expression level in these treatment groups. Conclusion These results provide a broad spectrum of candidate genes that are critically involved in the molecular regulation mechanism of Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV-BmK IT.
Rong Zhu, He-Jun Du, Shun-Yi Li, Ya-Dong Li, Hong Ni, Xue-Jing Yu, Yan-Yan Yang, Yu-Ding Fan, Nan Jiang, Ling-Bing Zeng, Xing-Guo Wang
Fish & Shellfish Immunology Volume 55, August 2016, Pages 699-716
Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), one of the oldest extant actinopterygian fishes with very high evolutionary, economical and conservation interest, is considered to be one of the critically endangered aquatic animals in China. Up to date, the immune system of this species remains largely undetermined with little sequence information publicly available. Herein, the first comprehensive transcriptome of immune tissues for Chinese sturgeon was characterized using Illumina deep sequencing. Over 67 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into the final set of 91,739 unique sequences. The annotation pipeline revealed that 25,871 unigenes were successfully annotated in the public databases, of which only 2002 had significant match to the existing sequences for the genus Acipenser. Overall 22,827 unigenes were categorized into 52 GO terms, 12,742 were classified into 26 KOG categories, and 4968 were assigned to 339 KEGG pathways. A more detailed annotation search showed the presence of a notable representation of immune-related genes, which suggests that this non-teleost actinopterygian fish harbors the same intermediates as in the well known immune pathways from mammals and teleosts, such as pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, complement and coagulation pathway, T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways. Additional genetic marker discovery led to the retrieval of 20,056 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 327,140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This immune-enriched transcriptome of Chinese sturgeon represents a rich resource that adds to the currently nascent field of chondrostean fish immunogenetics and furthers the conservation and management of this valuable fish.
Chunxue Yang, Wenzong Liu, Zhangwei He, Sangeetha Thangavel, Ling Wang, Aijuan Zhou, Aijie Wang
Bioresource Technology 175 (2015) 509–516
A novel pretreatment method combining freezing/thawing with Geobacillus sp. G1 was employed to pretreat waste activated sludge (WAS) for enhancing the WAS hydrolysis and subsequent short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production. Results showed that freezing/thawing combined with Geobacillus sp. G1 pretreatment achieved the maximal concentrations of soluble protein from 40 ± 6 mg COD/L (non-pretreated) to 1226 ± 24 mg COD/L (pretreated), and accumulated SCFAs concentration increased from 248 ± 81 mg COD/L to 3032 ± 53 mg COD/L. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the highest fluorescence intensity (FI) of protein-like substances, which was the dominant fluorescent organic matters, indicating the synergistic effect of freezing/thawing and Geobacillus sp. G1 pretreatment on organics hydrolysis. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis investigated that the abundance of bacteria responsible for WAS hydrolysis (such as Clostridium and Caloramator) and SCFAs production (such as Parabacteroides and Bacterodies) was greatly enhanced due to the novel pretreatment method used.
Yang Sun, Yingfei Ma, Ping Lin, Yi-Wei Tang, Liying Yang, Yinzhong Shen, Renfan Zhang, Li Liu, Jun Cheng, Jiashen Shao, Tangkai Qi, Yan Tang, Rentian Cai, Liqian Guan, Bin Luo, Meiyan Sun, Ben Li, Zhiheng Pei and Hongzhou Lu
Emerging Microbes and Infections (2016) 5, e31
The purpose of this study was to identify fecal bacterial microbiome changes in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (454 pyrosequencing), and clustered into operational taxonomic units using the QIIME software. Relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were calculated. Alpha diversity was determined by Chao 1 and observed-species indices, and beta diversity was determined by double principal component analysis using the estimated phylogeny-based unweighted Unifrac distance matrices. Fecal samples of the patients with chronic HIV-infection tended to be enriched with bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes (47.20%±0.43 relative abundance) and Proteobacteria (37.21%±0.36) compared with those of the non-HIV infected controls (17.95%±0.06 and 3.81%±0.02, respectively). Members of the genus Bilophila were exclusively detected in samples of the non-HIV infected controls. Bacteroides and arabacteroides were more abundant in the chronic HIV-infected patients. Our study indicated that chronic HIV-infected patients in China have a fecal bacterial microbiome composition that is largely different from that found in non-HIV infected controls, and further study is needed to evaluate whether microbiome changes play a role in disease complications in the distal gut, including opportunistic infections.